Reports

Report on the second Afterlife survey

 

Goal study

 

Some general information about the respondents of the AAfterlife survey is presented. Second, the match between education and industries is investigated in terms of competences. Third, topics of interest (related to predefined work packages) are discussed. Themes include education pathways, drop-out pathways, mobility, employment, life satisfaction, work-life balance, job satisfaction, perceived success, and financial security.

 

Where indicated, differences between occupation fields (i.e. flow 1, flow 2, flow 3, flow 4), gender, and country are investigated and discussed.

 

Participants

 

Participation number

 

2412 started the survey, 1674 of them completed the whole survey.

 

Gender

56% of the participants are female, 43 % are male.

 

Age

Participants have an average age of 36,81 years (SD = 10,98). The distribution is graphically displayed below:

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/bU03bIzCBuLb1mkRGjTBOf3vHqHGiLdqnA6pXKseRA62e50OWByuNbgeEi56_fJ-KwkPCrE0fP6HnPQ3mEwn_-4-LgncGKeZW7USWntC2b4GB3LT61xL-SonDry6MXPwa8CtMXS3wMnDDqGx4Q

Country

 

62 different countries were represented in the survey. Countries of AAfterlife partners are included in the table below.

Country

# participants

Percentage

Belgium

166

9,4%

Croatia

172

9,7%

Italy

63

3,6%

Spain

242

13,6%

United Kingdom

170

9,6%

Other countries

960

54,1%

Total

1773

100%

 

Marital status

>75% is in a relationship (in a relationship or married).

 

Children

 

35.5% of the respondents have children. Note that a considerate number of participants is of young age (and might not have children yet).

 

Professional status

 

>80% have a paid profession.

 

Field of occupation

 

72% of those with a paid profession are currently working as an architect (62% in architecture only, 10% in combination with another field).

https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/x17zkIsRoaqjDU0FK3fh0s_3fcnlm7T19tv-wIKxGJUm98ouOpuZSy2cWLRXLhRfIZx3NPRoRtBcjvvucR5qSxQ5qND2kYM0c0U54IA2lFHoHNqrjM_iLntl5ma8_BwxcuxOSitgY1Tv5xgHJA

To know whether we are facing a sampling bias (e.g. more people reported working as an architect because we reached them through boards of architects), we compared the total of responses with responses only from people that were recruited through alumni offices (which will probably reach a more balanced variety of occupation profiles). No differences were found (for details: see below), so we can conclude that there is no sampling bias in relation to occupation fields. Hence, all responses will be included in further analysis.

 

Image

 

The field of occupation is not different for man versus women.

However, the distribution is different for countries.

 

Match between education and industry

 

General results

 

Scale level

 

To see whether there is a (mis)match between education and industry, we compared the acquired competences during architectural education with the demands of the industry. Respondents indicated on a Likert scale (1 = Not at all, 5 = extremely well) how well they acquired a set of competences, and indicated how often they used this given set in their current job (1 = Never, 5 = Always).

 

How well did you acquire the following competences through your architectural education?

1 = Not at all

2 = Slightly

3 = Moderately

4 = Very well

5 = Extremely well

How often do you use the following competences in your current job?

1 Never

2 = Rarely

3 = Sometimes

4 = Often

5 = Always

 

We clustered the competences in the following groups: Skills and knowledge, Processing information, Personal competence, Presentation and communication, Diversity Competence, Cooperation competence, and Employability (for details, see below).

 

Skills and knowledge

  • Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

  • Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

  • Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

  • Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

  • Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

  • Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

  • Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

Processing information

  • Developing vision

  • Being passionate about architecture

  • Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...

  • Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

  • Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

  • Dealing with complexity

  • Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

  • Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

  • Producing something relevant

Personal competence

  • Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

  • Work ethic (e.g. self-discipline, willingness to work hard,...)

  • Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

  • Handling criticism

  • Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

  • Constant learning and self-improvement

  • Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

Presentation and communication

  • Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

Diversity Competence

  • Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

  • Openness to other views and ways of living

Cooperation competence

  • Working with clients

  • Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

  • Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

Employability

  • Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

  • Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

 

In the table below, the mean scores are displayed.

 

 

How well did you acquire the following competences through your architectural education? (M)

How often do you use the following competences in your current job? (M)

Skills and knowledge

3.40

3.70

Processing information

3.36

3.78

Personal competence

3.69

4.09

Presentation and communication

3.39

3.87

Diversity Competence

2.93

3.84

Cooperation competence

2.35

4.03

Employability

1.93

3.80

 

Generally, respondents reported that personal competences were the competences that they acquired the best during education. They also needed them the most in their current jobs. Also, skills and knowledge, and processing information were well acquired and often used. However, when we look at diversity competence, cooperation competence and employability, we see a possible mismatch. People reported that they use very often cooperation competences, but did not acquire them very well through education. Employability (project management skills and business management skills) was acquired the worst, while this was still quite often needed in the workplace.

 

Item level

 

How well did you acquire…

 

 

Mean

SD

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

3,73

0,915

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

4,01

0,788

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

2,9

1,103

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

3,53

0,95

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

3,76

0,799

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

2,49

0,968

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

3,37

0,84

Developing vision

3,45

0,959

Being passionate about architecture

3,71

1,061

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,22

1,057

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,2

1,031

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

3,59

1,05

Dealing with complexity

3,43

0,983

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

3,17

1,058

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

3,21

1,052

Producing something relevant

3,27

0,977

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

3,77

1,018

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

3,78

1,076

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

4,16

0,933

Handling criticism

3,65

1,021

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

3,56

1,015

Constant learning and self-improvement

3,63

0,984

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

3,23

1,129

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,39

0,998

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

2,69

1,166

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,17

1,097

Working with clients

1,72

0,89

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

3,32

1,065

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

2,03

1,021

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

2,32

1,138

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

1,54

0,781

 

How often do you use…

 

 

Mean

SD

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

1,95

1,029

Being passionate about architecture

1,96

1,191

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

2,09

1,199

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

2,15

1,177

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

2,78

1,315

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

2,91

1,354

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

2,99

1,427

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

3,2

1,4

Developing vision

3,4

1,174

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

3,54

1,169

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,59

1,217

Working with clients

3,6

1,186

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,66

1,068

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,7

1,141

Producing something relevant

3,76

1,139

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,8

1,03

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

3,82

1,041

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

3,84

1,094

Handling criticism

3,84

0,981

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

3,85

1,145

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

3,88

0,961

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

3,96

0,962

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

3,96

0,999

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

3,99

1,006

Dealing with complexity

4,05

0,888

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

4,09

0,944

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

4,15

0,823

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

4,19

0,828

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

4,23

0,779

Constant learning and self-improvement

4,26

0,771

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

4,38

0,663

 

Mismatches (the lower the number, the bigger the mismatch)

 

 

Mean

SD

Mismatch_working_with_clients

-2,409

1,32127

Mismatch_business_management_skills

-1,8771

1,47142

Mismatch_project_management_skills

-1,8571

1,39814

Mismatch_mediating_skills

-1,6756

1,34842

Mismatch_digital_skills

-1,4038

1,33433

Mismatch_emphaty

-1,1503

1,42101

Mismatch_decision_making

-1,0499

1,28148

Mismatch_collaboration_skills

-0,941

1,28433

Mismatch_knowledge_of_sustainability

-0,8407

1,38048

Mismatch_dealing_with_complexity

-0,8116

1,13684

Mismatch_dealing_with_uncertainty

-0,7536

1,34135

Mismatch_openess

-0,6686

1,3169

Mismatch_producing_something_relevant

-0,5922

1,25953

Mismatch_flexibility

-0,5808

1,16814

Mismatch_technical_knowledge

-0,5607

1,37431

Mismatch_constant_learning_selfimprovement

-0,5334

1,15007

Mismatch_work_ethic

-0,4995

1,14179

Mismatch_inquiring_and_questioning

-0,4953

1,32314

Mismatch_research_skills

-0,4873

1,34833

Mismatch_presentation_skills

-0,4862

1,392

Mismatch_being_critical

-0,4102

1,19522

Mismatch_determination

-0,3677

1,08149

Mismatch_developing_vision

-0,2533

1,2191

Mismatch_design_thinking

-0,2458

1,18583

Mismatch_handeling_criticism

-0,12

1,23535

Mismatch_spatial_skills

-0,1091

1,13966

Mismatch_vizualisation_skills

0,0019

1,4281

Mismatch_endurance

0,058

1,17411

Mismatch_taking_artistic_approach

0,1774

1,36552

Mismatch_being_passionate

0,1928

1,36543

Mismatch_theory_and_history

1,032

1,25525

 

Mean =  Acquisition in education - Frequency used in work environment

Negative number = skill is not sufficiently acquired through education, given the requirements in the job market. The lower the number, the bigger the mismatch

Number around zero = balance between requirements in job market and competences learned through education

Positive number = skill is acquired more than needed through education, given the requirements in the job market

 

Note that ‘taking an artistic approach’, ‘being passionate about architecture’ and ‘theory and history’ are perceived as overstressed in the AE.

 

Differences between fields of occupation

 

Scale level

 

How well architecture graduates acquired these sets of competences, tends to depend from current occupation. However, this is only marginally significant. (p < 0.10 but >0.05). When we look at the between-subject effects (which we are technically not allowed to do when the multivariate test is not significant), we see that this might be due to a difference in ‘employability’. Employability in flow 4 > flow 3> flow 2 > flow 1.

 

How often architecture graduates need these sets of competences varies according to field of occupation. Significant differences were found for skills and knowledge, processing information, personal competences, and cooperation competences.

 

How often do you use… (M)

Skills and knowledge (M)

Processing information (M)

Personal competence (M)

Cooperation competence (M)

Architecture (Flow 1)

3,8634

3,8007

4,0481

4,0621

Architecture + other field (Flow 2)

3,7951

3,8316

4,1414

4,1785

Related sector (Flow 3)

3,5103

3,8368

4,2194

3,9880

Unrelated sector (Flow 4)

2,8077

3,4744

4,1392

3,7179

 

It is not surprising that skills and knowledge that are inherent to architecture are used more often by people who are working in architecture, or are combining architecture with another field. Processing information is used often in architecture, architecture + other field, but also in related sectors. It is less relevant for the unrelated sectors. Personal competences are important in all sectors, but especially in the related sectors. Cooperation competences are most frequently used by people who are combining architecture with another field.

 

Item level

 

How well did you acquire…

 

FLOW 1

 

Mean

SD

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

1,52

0,813

Working with clients

1,65

0,879

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

1,98

1,034

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

2,22

1,129

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

2,45

0,974

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

2,66

1,17

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

2,92

1,109

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,11

1,103

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

3,16

1,069

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,19

1,059

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

3,19

1,132

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,21

1,022

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

3,23

1,04

Producing something relevant

3,26

0,978

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

3,28

1,079

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

3,34

0,838

Dealing with complexity

3,35

0,963

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,37

1,011

Developing vision

3,46

0,968

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

3,49

0,967

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

3,5

0,994

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

3,57

1,032

Handling criticism

3,6

1,055

Constant learning and self-improvement

3,61

0,963

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

3,72

0,9

Being passionate about architecture

3,75

1,066

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

3,75

1,018

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

3,75

1,096

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

3,79

0,795

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

3,99

0,785

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

4,15

0,924

 

FLOW 2

 

Mean

SD

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

1,53

0,746

Working with clients

1,7

0,845

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

2,14

1,073

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

2,26

0,989

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

2,53

1,114

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

2,7

1,148

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

2,86

1,167

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

3,1

1,105

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

3,19

1,088

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,23

1,149

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,27

0,993

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

3,29

1,023

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

3,3

0,818

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,3

1,087

Producing something relevant

3,32

1,036

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

3,33

1,124

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,37

0,929

Developing vision

3,41

0,997

Dealing with complexity

3,43

1,055

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

3,48

1,007

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

3,59

1,103

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

3,68

1,019

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

3,69

0,993

Handling criticism

3,71

0,966

Constant learning and self-improvement

3,73

0,973

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

3,74

0,989

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

3,79

0,983

Being passionate about architecture

3,8

0,979

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

3,81

0,829

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

3,92

0,847

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

4,2

0,899

 

FLOW 3

 

Mean

SD

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

1,62

0,722

Working with clients

1,9

0,907

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

2,1

0,945

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

2,5

1,133

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

2,55

0,886

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

2,75

1,134

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

2,86

1,063

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,18

0,999

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

3,2

1,039

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,22

1,06

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,27

1,112

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

3,28

1,016

Producing something relevant

3,3

0,949

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

3,38

1,118

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

3,42

0,852

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

3,45

1,002

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,48

0,956

Developing vision

3,51

0,898

Dealing with complexity

3,62

0,929

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

3,66

1,023

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

3,67

0,875

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

3,68

1,043

Constant learning and self-improvement

3,69

0,983

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

3,73

0,755

Handling criticism

3,76

0,879

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

3,77

0,919

Being passionate about architecture

3,77

0,965

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

3,91

0,951

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

3,93

0,998

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

4,14

0,773

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

4,25

0,9

 

FLOW 4

 

Mean

SD

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

1,48

0,707

Working with clients

1,8

0,922

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

2,04

1,036

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

2,46

1,188

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

2,52

0,942

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

2,8

1,242

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

2,89

1,047

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,09

1,042

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

3,09

1,019

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

3,14

1,071

Being passionate about architecture

3,16

1,204

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

3,25

1,177

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,27

1,078

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,27

1,123

Developing vision

3,28

0,983

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,29

1,01

Producing something relevant

3,31

0,988

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

3,37

1,16

Constant learning and self-improvement

3,46

1,14

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

3,51

0,84

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

3,53

0,907

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

3,56

0,879

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

3,59

1,147

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

3,62

1,129

Dealing with complexity

3,66

1,086

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

3,66

1,202

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

3,68

0,941

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

3,69

1,189

Handling criticism

3,72

1,151

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

3,96

0,763

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

4,01

1,11

 

How often do you use…

FLOW 1

 

 

Mean

SD

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

2,74

1,016

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

3,06

1,056

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

3,42

0,971

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

3,42

1,281

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,61

1,019

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

3,63

1,074

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

3,66

1,083

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,66

1,059

Developing vision

3,71

0,994

Handling criticism

3,71

0,91

Being passionate about architecture

3,76

1,067

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,81

0,972

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

3,82

0,951

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,85

0,984

Producing something relevant

3,9

1,004

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

3,9

0,904

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

3,97

0,866

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

4,05

0,912

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

4,06

0,864

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

4,1

0,832

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

4,1

0,796

Constant learning and self-improvement

4,1

0,884

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

4,18

0,872

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

4,21

0,825

Dealing with complexity

4,22

0,806

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

4,26

0,788

Working with clients

4,26

0,942

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

4,28

0,801

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

4,28

0,847

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

4,35

0,803

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

4,49

0,815

 

FLOW 2

 

 

Mean

SD

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

3,03

1,167

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

3,17

1,18

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

3,48

0,988

Being passionate about architecture

3,56

1,143

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

3,64

1,025

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

3,69

1,163

Developing vision

3,75

1,003

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,79

1,026

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,82

1,017

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,88

0,874

Producing something relevant

3,9

1,028

Handling criticism

3,92

0,813

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,96

1,009

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

3,97

0,955

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

3,99

0,872

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

4,02

0,909

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

4,03

0,899

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

4,04

0,894

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

4,07

0,939

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

4,07

0,873

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

4,18

0,814

Constant learning and self-improvement

4,2

0,939

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

4,2

0,793

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

4,22

1,014

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

4,24

0,931

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

4,26

0,82

Working with clients

4,28

0,87

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

4,29

0,768

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

4,29

0,852

Dealing with complexity

4,31

0,809

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

4,37

0,747

 

FLOW 3

 

 

Mean

SD

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

2,82

1,217

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

2,93

1,188

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

3,2

1,199

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

3,36

1,367

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

3,39

1,124

Being passionate about architecture

3,4

1,222

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

3,55

1,132

Developing vision

3,75

1,106

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

3,79

1,055

Producing something relevant

3,83

1,039

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

3,84

0,9

Working with clients

3,84

1,118

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

3,85

0,998

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

3,88

0,999

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,89

1,087

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,9

1,065

Handling criticism

3,9

0,848

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

3,91

1,044

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,94

0,982

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,96

0,903

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

4,13

0,829

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

4,15

0,814

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

4,19

0,852

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

4,24

0,946

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

4,26

0,764

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

4,26

0,72

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

4,27

0,862

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

4,29

0,752

Constant learning and self-improvement

4,3

0,782

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

4,31

0,792

Dealing with complexity

4,37

0,788

 

FLOW 4

 

 

Mean

SD

Technical knowledge about buildings and construction (e.g. materials, physics, structures,...)

1,95

1,029

Being passionate about architecture

1,96

1,191

Theory and History (e.g. of architecture, art, culture, humanities,…)

2,09

1,199

Knowledge of sustainability (e.g. ecology, circular economy, energy performance, LCA,…)

2,15

1,177

Spatial skills (e.g. understanding space, sensitivity to spatial features,…)

2,78

1,315

Taking an artistic approach (e.g. addressing emotions, going beyond the conventional,...)

2,91

1,354

Visualization skills (e.g. hand drawing, model making, mixed media, artistic skills  ...)

2,99

1,427

Business management skills (e.g. managing a business, company, department)

3,2

1,4

Developing vision

3,4

1,174

Mediating skills (e.g. negotiations, conflict mediation,...)

3,54

1,169

Inquiring and questioning (e.g. investigating a brief for a project,...)

3,59

1,217

Working with clients

3,6

1,186

Research skills (e.g. systematic investigation of a problem in order to gain a better insight)

3,66

1,068

Presentation skills (e.g. selling an idea, public speaking,...)

3,7

1,141

Producing something relevant

3,76

1,139

Openness to other views and ways of living

3,8

1,03

Empathy (e.g. being interested in the story of someone else)

3,82

1,041

Design-thinking (e.g. thinking out-of-the-box, solution-oriented, creativity,…)

3,84

1,094

Handling criticism

3,84

0,981

Digital skills (e.g. proficient use of hard-  and software, parametric approaches, …)

3,85

1,145

Being critical (e.g. taking critical distance from own work)

3,88

0,961

Decision making (e.g. taking a stance, making judgments,...)

3,96

0,962

Project management skills (e.g. time management, productivity,…)

3,96

0,999

Endurance (e.g. working under pressure, handling stress and deadlines,...)

3,99

1,006

Dealing with complexity

4,05

0,888

Collaboration skills (e.g. team work)

4,09

0,944

Dealing with uncertainty / being able to function in conditions of uncertainty

4,15

0,823

Determination (e.g. commitment, persistence, dedication, willingness to achieve,...)

4,19

0,828

Flexibility (e.g. adaptability, being open for change and renewal,...)

4,23

0,779

Constant learning and self-improvement

4,26

0,771

Work ethic (e.g. self-discinpline, willingness to work hard,...)

4,38

0,663

 

Below, the mismatches are presented.

 

FLOW 1

 

Mean

SD

Mismatch_working_with_clients

-2,6092

1,23554

Mismatch_project_management_skills

-1,9631

1,38959

Mismatch_business_management_skills

-1,8938

1,4538

Mismatch_mediating_skills

-1,6466

1,36192

Mismatch_digital_skills

-1,5794

1,23526

Mismatch_emphaty

-1,1536

1,4189

Mismatch_decision_making

-1,062

1,27947

Mismatch_collaboration_skills

-1,0046

1,28362

Mismatch_knowledge_of_sustainability

-0,9681

1,2835

Mismatch_technical_knowledge

-0,9379

1,11851

Mismatch_dealing_with_complexity

-0,8811

1,14634

Mismatch_dealing_with_uncertainty

-0,7204

1,35937

Mismatch_openess

-0,6912

1,32139

Mismatch_producing_something_relevant

-0,6409

1,2598

Mismatch_flexibility

-0,5929

1,20072

Mismatch_work_ethic

-0,5139

1,18457

Mismatch_constant_learning_selfimprovement

-0,49

1,11263

Mismatch_presentation_skills

-0,4847

1,38837

Mismatch_inquiring_and_questioning

-0,4689

1,30589

Mismatch_being_critical

-0,4094

1,18865

Mismatch_research_skills

-0,3909

1,31014

Mismatch_spatial_skills

-0,3632

0,97158

Mismatch_determination

-0,358

1,07014

Mismatch_design_thinking

-0,3298

1,13224

Mismatch_developing_vision

-0,2598

1,19967

Mismatch_vizualisation_skills

-0,1939

1,38558

Mismatch_handeling_criticism

-0,1003

1,27785

Mismatch_being_passionate

-0,0106

1,28977

Mismatch_endurance

0,0938

1,16529

Mismatch_taking_artistic_approach

0,1672

1,29958

Mismatch_theory_and_history

1,0561

1,15224

 

FLOW 2

 

Mean

SD

Mismatch_working_with_clients

-2,5905

1,25342

Mismatch_business_management_skills

-2,1619

1,44198

Mismatch_project_management_skills

-1,9423

1,23718

Mismatch_mediating_skills

-1,8381

1,32378

Mismatch_digital_skills

-1,5377

1,32503

Mismatch_decision_making

-1,1714

1,37601

Mismatch_emphaty

-1,1238

1,4656

Mismatch_collaboration_skills

-0,9905

1,1477

Mismatch_knowledge_of_sustainability

-0,9528

1,29012

Mismatch_dealing_with_complexity

-0,8857

1,18739

Mismatch_dealing_with_uncertainty

-0,8491

1,32228

Mismatch_technical_knowledge

-0,7264

1,2462

Mismatch_openess

-0,6019

1,30113

Mismatch_presentation_skills

-0,5905

1,38464

Mismatch_producing_something_relevant

-0,5769

1,35598

Mismatch_research_skills

-0,5714

1,49908

Mismatch_work_ethic

-0,5566

1,06976

Mismatch_inquiring_and_questioning

-0,5096

1,46145

Mismatch_flexibility

-0,5

1,14018

Mismatch_constant_learning_selfimprovement

-0,4615

1,27655

Mismatch_being_critical

-0,4327

1,34211

Mismatch_determination

-0,3942

1,161

Mismatch_developing_vision

-0,3429

1,26208

Mismatch_spatial_skills

-0,2925

0,98529

Mismatch_design_thinking

-0,2736

1,19947

Mismatch_handeling_criticism

-0,217

1,06014

Mismatch_endurance

-0,1698

1,07324

Mismatch_vizualisation_skills

-0,1604

1,28831

Mismatch_taking_artistic_approach

0,1619

1,51989

Mismatch_being_passionate

0,2404

1,38294

Mismatch_theory_and_history

0,783

1,52443

 

FLOW 3

 

Mean

SD

Mismatch_working_with_clients

-1,9393

1,42118

Mismatch_project_management_skills

-1,7581

1,39328

Mismatch_mediating_skills

-1,7535

1,32893

Mismatch_business_management_skills

-1,7395

1,54891

Mismatch_emphaty

-1,0837

1,36117

Mismatch_digital_skills

-1,0741

1,40897

Mismatch_decision_making

-1,0234

1,2426

Mismatch_knowledge_of_sustainability

-0,8605

1,45302

Mismatch_collaboration_skills

-0,8131

1,28648

Mismatch_dealing_with_uncertainty

-0,7559

1,3376

Mismatch_dealing_with_complexity

-0,7277

1,03296

Mismatch_research_skills

-0,7056

1,41164

Mismatch_openess

-0,6822

1,38807

Mismatch_inquiring_and_questioning

-0,6573

1,28486

Mismatch_constant_learning_selfimprovement

-0,6121

1,16846

Mismatch_flexibility

-0,586

1,13598

Mismatch_producing_something_relevant

-0,5118

1,22808

Mismatch_presentation_skills

-0,4626

1,40956

Mismatch_being_critical

-0,4465

1,198

Mismatch_work_ethic

-0,3598

1,04656

Mismatch_determination

-0,3488

1,05644

Mismatch_developing_vision

-0,2488

1,25483

Mismatch_handeling_criticism

-0,1395

1,14348

Mismatch_technical_knowledge

-0,1302

1,38137

Mismatch_design_thinking

-0,0138

1,25639

Mismatch_endurance

0,0607

1,13462

Mismatch_spatial_skills

0,2581

1,15379

Mismatch_taking_artistic_approach

0,2837

1,41371

Mismatch_being_passionate

0,3972

1,30229

Mismatch_vizualisation_skills

0,4608

1,41408

Mismatch_theory_and_history

0,912

1,37643

 

FLOW 4

 

Mean

SD

Mismatch_working_with_clients

-1,8

1,3255

Mismatch_business_management_skills

-1,7375

1,40292

Mismatch_mediating_skills

-1,4875

1,31201

Mismatch_emphaty

-1,3375

1,54218

Mismatch_project_management_skills

-1,15

1,4764

Mismatch_dealing_with_uncertainty

-0,8889

1,23491

Mismatch_decision_making

-0,8659

1,27427

Mismatch_constant_learning_selfimprovement

-0,7654

1,20698

Mismatch_collaboration_skills

-0,7

1,41779

Mismatch_digital_skills

-0,6829

1,52249

Mismatch_work_ethic

-0,679

1,10484

Mismatch_research_skills

-0,5854

1,21667

Mismatch_flexibility

-0,575

1,02839

Mismatch_openess

-0,5316

1,09586

Mismatch_determination

-0,4625

1,14675

Mismatch_producing_something_relevant

-0,4268

1,20729

Mismatch_presentation_skills

-0,425

1,40321

Mismatch_dealing_with_complexity

-0,378

1,16153

Mismatch_being_critical

-0,2927

1,04808

Mismatch_inquiring_and_questioning

-0,2683

1,35217

Mismatch_design_thinking

-0,1463

1,32518

Mismatch_handeling_criticism

-0,0988

1,34727

Mismatch_developing_vision

-0,0976

1,23338

Mismatch_taking_artistic_approach

0

1,5396

Mismatch_endurance

0,0617

1,4348

Mismatch_knowledge_of_sustainability

0,378

1,47941

Mismatch_vizualisation_skills

0,5732

1,56371

Mismatch_spatial_skills

1,1951

1,38278

Mismatch_being_passionate

1,2317

1,54998

Mismatch_theory_and_history

1,4756

1,22953

Mismatch_technical_knowledge

1,561

1,13418

 

Differences between gender

 

How often architecture graduates need these sets of competences varies according to gender. Interestingly, women reported some competences to be more frequently needed. Whether this is an actual difference, or this is a perceived difference is not clear from the data, but can be an interesting topic to explore in further research. Significant differences were found for personal competences, diversity competences, and cooperation competences.

 

Differences between financial security

 

How often architecture graduates need these sets of competences varies according to their income. The higher the income, the more they reported that given competences were needed. In the analyses, people who did not want to reveal their income, were selected out. The effect of income persisted when gender was added to the model. (However, women tend to earn less, see Financial security, while they still reported to need the frequencies more often, see Differences between gender.). Significant differences were found for all competences, except for skills and knowledge.

 

Interestingly, this effect was not found when we inspected ‘perceived financial security’ (see topic: Financial security).

 

Professional activities

 

Participants were asked about how often they dealt with several activities in their professional lives.. Professional activities were measured on a Likert scale from 1 (= never) to 5 (= always) with the item “How often do you have to deal with the following aspects in your professional life or professional activities?” Descriptives (mean scores and standard deviations) for each activity are given below.

 

 

Mean

SD

Leading others

3,43

1,135

Following orders and instructions

3,53

,977

Practical, executing work

3,86

1,057

Helping others

3,63

,866

Financial matters

2,93

1,262

Managing the business, company, or department

2,75

1,475

Artistic work (art)

2,74

1,136

Developing new techniques or new ideas

3,23

1,051

Selling products or services to consumers

1,97

1,199

Giving training, education or guidance to others

2,69

1,236

Creative work (being creative, searching for creative solutions,…)

3,61

1,004

Communication with people within the business, company, or department

4,06

,982

Communication with people outside the business, company, or department

3,80

,996

Physical work, manual labor

1,73

,901

Taking care of, treating, or healing people

1,42

,841

Taking care of, treating, or healing animals

1,18

,601

Outdoor work (working in gardens, forests or on the field)

1,50

,824

Working with or on machines

1,59

1,047

Conducting and/or carrying out research

2,33

1,235

 

Communicating with other people is the most frequent activity. Practical, executing work is also often carried out. Also, a lot of people consider their jobs as ‘helping others’. How often people carry out these activities differs according to their field. The activities for which statistical differences were found, are flagged with an asterisk.

 

 

Architecture

(flow 1) (M)

Architecture + other field

(flow 2) (M)

Related sector

(flow 3) (M)

Unrelated sector

(flow 4) (M)

Leading others*

3,33

3,66

3,53

3,58

Following orders and instructions

3,55

3,39

3,53

3,60

Practical, executing work*

4,00

3,91

3,43

3,81

Helping others*

3,56

3,64

3,77

3,81

Financial matters*

2,85

3,16

3,05

2,81

Managing the business, company, or department*

2,65

3,1

2,83

2,83

Artistic work (art) *

2,79

2,94

2,45

2,82

Developing new techniques or new ideas*

3,13

3,29

3,34

3,62

Selling products or services to consumers*

1,95

2,04

1,92

2,16

Giving training, education or guidance to others*

2,47

3,09

2,99

3,11

Creative work (being creative, searching for creative solutions,…) *

3,67

3,73

3,37

3,57

Communication with people within the business, company, or department

4,03

3,92

4,15

4,17

Communication with people outside the business, company, or department

3,81

3,77

3,80

3,69

Physical work, manual labor*

1,73

2,10

1,53

1,81

Taking care of, treating, or healing people

1,41

1,57

1,35

1,43

Taking care of, treating, or healing animals*

1,20

1,29

1,08

1,09

Outdoor work (working in gardens, forests or on the field) *

1,50

1,72

1,45

1,27

Working with or on machines*

1,61

1,81

1,43

1,64

Conducting and/or carrying out research*

2,12

2,69

2,81

2,30

 

Topics of interest

 

Education pathways

 

Degree

The vast majority of respondents obtained a master degree or equivalent (>80%). Note that this is probably an artifact of the response collection.

 

The obtained degree varied across field of occupation. The higher the degree, the more likely respondents were to actually work as an architect.

 

Also, this distribution varies across countries (depending on regulation).

 

 

Belgium

Croatia

Italy

Spain

United kingdom

No degree (I started architecture education but did not complete any cycle)

0

0

1

2

0

Bachelor degree or equivalent (e.g. under-graduate diploma, RIBA part 1, first cycle,...)

4

0

3

29

44

Master degree or equivalent (e.g. graduate diploma, RIBA part 2, second cycle,...)

157

188

54

203

19

Doctoral degree

7

5

15

27

8

 

Internship/ work experience during studies

 

The vast majority of respondents got some work experience in any form during their architecture studies.

 

During your studies, did you gain some work experience in architecture?

 

Frequency

Percent